Sunday, August 14, 2016

Note to self no. 1: Use triangulation in family history research

This is the first blogpost in a series I'm calling "Note to self: Use my day-job skills in my family history research", in an attempt to remind myself to use my day-job skills in my family history research.

So, here's a link to my first "note to self" blogpost. I hope to give myself a serious kick in the genealogical pants through writing this set of blogposts and, if other genies can benefit from posts, I'll be even more pleased.


A fair-dinkum educational researcher wouldn't be seen dead making a claim without some serious evidence. More than one piece of evidence is required to make a claim. Some call this "evidence-based research". Others call it common sense. So, sources of evidence are triangulated and compared against each other, just as maritime navigators use stars to work out where they are, so too do researchers come to work something out by comparing multiple sources.

In social science, including education, two or more sources of evidence are compared to validate or verify a claim or a research result. For example, data gathered from interviews can be analysed and compared with data gathered and analysed from questionnaires to validate the findings from each set of data.

The evidence may come from a multitude of sources and the quality of that evidence is also important, especially when quality is defined as reliability, trustworthiness, validity, credibility, transparency, etc.. I suppose the quality of evidence is also important in family history research. For example, the information on a person's death certificate is generally considered to be less accurate than the information on the same person's marriage certificate because the person is no longer with us after they are dead but we hope they are very much conscious when they sign their marriage certificate.

An example of triangulation

So, an example of triangulating your sources in family history research could be the comparison of four death records for one person. Despite the "tri-" in triangulation, you don't necessary need three pieces of evidence, you can use more or sometimes only two. For example, a few years ago, I was unsure of the death year of one of my great-uncles, Henry Augustus NEWTON. His grave recorded his death date as 1936 (see grave on the left below):

Henry NEWTON's gravestone, Field of Mars Cemetery, North Ryde, NSW
Photography: Maria NORTHCOTE

When I checked this "fact", that Henry NEWTON had died on 21 May 1936 at the age of 68 years, I found that I needed to dig a little deeper than the headstone on Henry's grave.

Henry Augustus NEWTON was the half-brother of my grand-father, Leo Bertie Bede NORTHCOTE. Out of all of the seven NORTHCOTE boys and their two half-brothers, the two NEWTON boys, Henry Augustus NEWTON was the eldest of the nine brothers, born about 1862, and Leo Bertie Bede NORTHCOTE, who was the youngest of these brothers, born in 1887.

To check other facts of Henry's death, I need to triangulate my first fact (his gravestone information) with other facts I had about his death, including:

  1. His funeral notice on page 9 of The Sydney Morning Herald on 22 May 1930, records his death as 21 May 1930.


                                                  The Sydney Morning Herald, page 9, 22 May 1930
  2. A reference to his funeral notice in The Sydney Morning Herald was also found in the Ryerson Index, noting that Henry NEWTON's funeral notice could be found on the  22 May 1930 newspaper edition. HE was described as being "late of Narromine".


                                              Reference to Henry NEWTON's funeral notice,
                                                 Ryerson Index, Accessed 14 August 2016
  3. Despite the date on his gravestone, the cemetery office records (accessed online through the Deceased Search: definitely show his date of death as 21 May 1930.

  4. Finally, Henry's death certificate provided further evidence that he died in 1930, not 1936.
                           Except from Henry NEWTON's death certificate 1930                                           NSW BDM no. 1930/7085

As a result of triangulating my data, I found that Henry NEWTON died in 1930, not 1936 as indicated on his gravestone. I think the error in his gravestone must have been made when another relative, was interred in Henry's grave in 1935. Perhaps the stonemason mis-transcribed the date of Henry's death when the gravestones were remade.

However, as many investigations in family history, some questions remain:

  • Did Henry die on 20, 21 or 22 May? The transcription of his death certificate records his death on 20 May whereas cemetery details and his gravestone record his death as 21 May.
  • Why was the year of his death on his gravestone incorrect?

For more about how this mystery was solved, see The mystery of Henry NEWTON's death date ... solving one mystery reveals other mysteries.

Take-away message

In conclusion, don't be too quick to grab a fact and treat it as true when researching your family's history. Don't believe everything you hear, see or read, especially if you only have one source of information. When you come across a new "fact", try wherever possible to compare this fact against other sources. This process will make you feel more confident about your research conclusions and it will make your family history research conclusions more robust. Also, by recording the sources of your information, this will increase the credibility of your research findings and make them more trackable.

A genie confession ... I forget to learn from myself

Over the years, many skilled and knowledgeable genies (genealogists) have shared their research expertise. Learning from others has been one of the main ways that I've been able to extend my own experience as a genealogical researcher. However, there is one person I sometimes forget to learn from - myself!

From my experience, the best way to break down brick walls in family history research is to apply systematic, rigorous, trackable research methods. Sounds reasonable, right? Well, one thing that sometimes amazes me is how I am not so good at applying my day-job skills as an educational researcher to my hobby as a family history researcher.  Although I'm not sure what prevents me from making this learning transfer, I'm keen to rectify it by writing a series of 10 blogposts over the next few weeks and months on the theme of:
Note to self: Use my day-job skills in my family history research
I hope to give myself a serious kick in the genealogical pants by writing this set of blogposts and, if other genies can benefit from these lessons to myself, I'll be even more pleased.

So, here's the first in my "note to self" series of blogposts:

Note to self: Use triangulation in family history research

Saturday, August 6, 2016

How to remove that pesky search-highlighting in your TROVE results in two clicks

When searching in TROVE (newspapers), I like to save a clean copy of the article I find without the search-highlighting. The benefits of using TROVE are endless (what's not to love?), as far as I can see, but the one thing that I had found challenging was how to remove the search-highlighting in a quick and easy way when you don't want to download the entire article or the entire page, as given to you by TROVE as a jpg or pdf download.  Maybe this is petty of me but I like to have a clean version of a newspaper article before I file it in my records, without the additional text on the page.

You've probably already worked out how to do this, so please forgive me for stating the obvious. However, for those who haven't, here is a simple solution. It will only add two clicks to your search process.

Step 1: Search

Conduct your search. For example, I was searching for information about the death of one of my great uncles, Thomas NEWTON, in 1926 in Warialda, NSW.

Source: Google Maps

My search terms in TROVE were:

Step 2: Find your highlighted article

Identify the article you wish to save and notice the searched-for terms are still highlighted (messy, in my opinion).

Source: Warialda Standard and Northern Districts' Advertiser, Monday 31 May 1926, page 3
(searched via TROVE newspaper search)

In terms of saving a nice, clean image of the newspaper notice, I'm not too keen on the image above, with all its search-highlighting still visible.

Step 3: Go to the NEXT page

In the "old days", to save a clean copy of this article, I would go into TROVE again and, instead of doing a search with specific terms, I would search the newspapers by title, then narrow down by date, and page number.

However, recently, I worked out a simpler and quicker way.

By clicking on the drop-down menu, under the page number (page 3 in the case below), you can get to the next page (page 4 in the case below) which will take you to a clean page without any highlighting. Although this next page is not of interest to you, it's worth the trip!

Hint: Remember the location of the article on the page that is of interest to you.

Source: Warialda Standard and Northern Districts' Advertiser, Monday 31 May 1926, page 3 with search terms highlighted 
(searched via TROVE newspaper search)

This will take you to the next page (page 4 in the case below).

Source: Warialda Standard and Northern Districts' Advertiser, Monday 31 May 1926, page 4 
(searched via TROVE newspaper search)

Step 4: Get your clean copy

Once you are on the next page (page 4 in the case above), you can quickly get back to the article you are interested in, by clicking on the previous link, under Page 4.

Source: Warialda Standard and Northern Districts' Advertiser, Monday 31 May 1926, page 4 
(searched via TROVE newspaper search)

... and this will get you back to your clean version of your searched-for article.

Source: Warialda Standard and Northern Districts' Advertiser, Monday 31 May 1926, page 3 
(searched via TROVE newspaper search)

I  also like to save a copy of the newspaper header for context.

Hope that little process gives you more genie time in the long run.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Chinaman's Bend Cemetery, near Orange, NSW

While still searching for the resting place of my great-great grandmother, Harriet RILEY (nee LICET/ LYSAUGHT), a fellow Facebook genealogist suggested I try looking for her at the Chinaman's Bend Cemetery, just outside of Orange, near Lucknow.

Although I didn't have any luck finding a gravestone of my great-great grandmother's grave, there were quite a few spaces without gravestones. She may have been buried here but I still think she is buried in the Orange General Cemetery for the following reasons:

  • She died in 1868.
  • The Chinaman's Bend Cemetery appears to have had people buried there during the 1830s and 1840s and maybe into the 1850s.
  • The Orange General Cemetery was established in 1853 (15 years before Harriet died).

In my search for information about the Chinaman's Bend Cemetery, near Orange in NSW, I had trouble finding its exact location and information about the gravestones in this cemetery. When I visited the cemetery last week, I took photographs of all of the gravestones I could find (eight in total). They are included below in case they are of interest to any other family historians. Also, I've included a map of where the cemetery can be found.

To begin with, here is the entrance to the cemetery. You can see the boundary fence - the cemetery is very small. You could walk around the boundary of the cemetery in less than 10 minutes.


Chinaman's Bend Cemetery (see red dot on map below) is on the Mitchell Highway, not too far from the Northern Distributor Rd turnoff.

Source: Googlemaps


Here is a selection of photographs I took on Sunday 24 July 2016. 

Articles and other information about the Chinaman's Bend Cemetery

Skeletons in the closet at graveyards by Tracey Prisk, 14 May 2012
Half a word away: Chinaman's Bend Cemetery 
Orange Cemeteries: Chinaman's Bend Cemetery 
Chinaman's Bend Cemetery
Geoview: Chinaman's Bend Cemetery
Chinamans Bend Cemetery - Worldwide Cemeteries on 
ExplorOz: Chinaman's Bend Cemetery 

It was a wee bit cold on the day I visited the cemetery (about 2°C) but I wasn't alone. I had a cheeky supervisor.

Saturday, March 5, 2016

DNA tests done!

This morning I finally got around to doing my two DNA tests that I was given as a Christmas present (pretty good Christmas present for a genie!):

  • Family Finder test (Autosomal DNA, or atDNA)
  • mtFull Sequence test (mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA)

The Family Finder test

According to the Family Tree DNA site, the Family Finder test examines autosomal DNA which is inherited by both your mother and father, your four grandparents, eight great-grandparents, etc. This test is recommended for people who are interested in finding out their ethnic makeup and can indicate the regions from the world your ancestors came from. This test can also help you to find living relatives on all of your family tree branches within the last five generations.

This test is described as an Autosomal DNA (atDNA) test:
"Autosomal DNA is DNA from one of our chromosomes located in the cell nucleus. It generally excludes the sex chromosomes. Humans have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes."

The mtFull Sequence test

According to the Family Tree DNA site, the mtFull Sequence test, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) test, traces the mother's mother's mother's etc. line. It has the potential to show the direct line of your mother's ancestors, going back thousands of years. Although both men and women have mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), this type of DNA is only passed on by women.

Other types of DNA tests 

Learn more about test types: Our three types of tests (Family Tree DNA)

The company

For about a year, I to-ed and fro-ed about which company to get tested with - but in the end I chose Family Tree DNA. If I had loads and loads of money, I'd probably get tested with all of the DNA companies.

The instructions ...

The process described in a 4 minute video ...

Checking the kit number ...

The swabs

The vials

Packing up all the bits

Ready to post!

And now the waiting begins ...